|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2013|
|Authors:||Novak, V, Santodomingo, N, Rösler, A, Di Martino, E, Braga, JCarlos, Taylor, PD, Johnson, KG, Renema, W|
|Journal:||Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology|
Most studies of Cenozoic shallow-water, mixed carbonate-siliciclastic depositional systems have focused on their sedimentology. To date, however, comprehensive analyses of biotas and biofacies of Indo-West Pacific reefs that developed in mixed carbonate-siliciclastic systems are lacking. This study describes the palaeoenvironment and biodiversity of a late Burdigalian patch reef that developed in a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic depositional system. The studied exposure is located at the northeast margin of the Kutai Basin near Bontang (Indonesia), and is approximately 80 m wide and 25 m thick. Multi-taxon analysis of the most abundant fossil groups, including larger benthic foraminifera, corals, coralline algae, and bryozoans, aims to provide a model for environmental interpretation that will allow comparison with similar deposits of Indo-West Pacific region. Based on fossil content and lithology, five different facies types have been distinguished: foraminiferal packstone (FP), bioclastic packstone with foralgal communities (BP), thin-platy coral sheetstone (CS), platy-tabular coral platestone (CP), and shales (S). Among larger benthic foraminifera, smaller and more robust forms dominate in the FP and BP facies, while larger and flatter forms are the most abundant in the CS and CP facies. Thin-platy corals are dominant in the CS facies and gradually change into thicker platy-tabular forms in the CP facies. Assemblages and growth forms of coralline algae show no major differences between the facies types and are dominated by melobesioids and Sporolithon. The majority of bryozoan species are encrusting and were found only in the CS facies. Light-dependent organisms occurring in the reef indicate low light conditions typical for mesophotic reefs. The relatively small size of this reef complex and quite distinct vertical changes in the facies types, combined with the high siliciclastic content in most of the units, points to strong terrigenous input affecting water transparency as the main factor controlling the reef growth.